Will her position be compromised so that she is found out again? Read more Read less. The rise of the colour blue in fashion in the 12th and 13th centuries led to a blue dye industry in several cities, notably Amiens , Toulouse , and Erfurt.
Blue was considered a beneficial colour which would protect the dead against evil in the afterlife. Blue dye was also used to colour the cloth in which mummies were wrapped. In Egypt blue was associated with the sky and with divinity.
The Egyptian god Amun could make his skin blue so that he could fly, invisible, across the sky. Blue could also protect against evil; many people around the Mediterranean still wear a blue amulet, representing the eye of God, to protect them from misfortune. They also added cobalt, which produced a deeper blue, the same blue produced in the Middle Ages in the stained glass windows of the cathedrals of Saint-Denis and Chartres.
The ancient Greeks classified colours by whether they were light or dark, rather than by their hue. The Greek word for dark blue, kyaneos , could also mean dark green, violet, black or brown.
The ancient Greek word for a light blue, glaukos , also could mean light green, grey, or yellow. It was not one of the four primary colours for Greek painting described by Pliny the Elder red, yellow, black, and white , but nonetheless it was used as a background colour behind the friezes on Greek temples and to colour the beards of Greek statues. The Romans also imported indigo dye, but blue was the colour of working class clothing; the nobles and rich wore white, black, red or violet.
Blue was considered the colour of mourning, and the colour of barbarians. Julius Caesar reported that the Celts and Germans dyed their faces blue to frighten their enemies, and tinted their hair blue when they grew old. According to Vitruvius , they made dark blue pigment from indigo, and imported Egyptian blue pigment. The walls of Roman villas in Pompeii had frescoes of brilliant blue skies, and blue pigments were found in the shops of colour merchants.
Lapis lazuli pendant from Mesopotamia c. A hippopotamus decorated with aquatic plants, made of faience with a blue glaze, made to resemble lapis lazuli.
Egyptian blue colour in a tomb painting c. The figure is made of faience with a blue glaze, designed to resemble turquoise. A lion against a blue background from the Ishtar Gate of ancient Babylon. Dark blue was widely used in the decoration of churches in the Byzantine Empire. In Byzantine art Christ and the Virgin Mary usually wore dark blue or purple. Blue was used as a background colour representing the sky in the magnificent mosaics which decorated Byzantine churches. In the Islamic world, blue was of secondary importance to green, believed to be the favourite colour of the Prophet Mohammed.
At certain times in Moorish Spain and other parts of the Islamic world, blue was the colour worn by Christians and Jews, because only Muslims were allowed to wear white and green.
Lapis lazuli pigment was also used to create the rich blues in Persian miniatures. Blue Byzantine mosaic ceiling representing the night sky in the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia in Ravenna , Italy 5th century. Blue mosaic in the cloak of Christ in the Hagia Sophia church in Istanbul 13th century. Glazed stone-paste bowl from Persia 12th century. Decorated page of a Koran from Persia AD. Blue tile on the facade of the Friday Mosque in Herat , Afghanistan 15th century. Persian miniature from the 16th century.
Flower-pattern tile from Iznik , Turkey, from the second half of the 16th century. In the art and life of Europe during the early Middle Ages, blue played a minor role.
The nobility wore red or purple, while only the poor wore blue clothing, coloured with poor-quality dyes made from the woad plant.
Blue played no part in the rich costumes of the clergy or the architecture or decoration of churches. He installed stained glass windows coloured with cobalt , which, combined with the light from the red glass, filled the church with a bluish violet light.
The church became the marvel of the Christian world, and the colour became known as the "bleu de Saint-Denis". In the years that followed even more elegant blue stained glass windows were installed in other churches, including at Chartres Cathedral and Sainte-Chapelle in Paris. Another important factor in the increased prestige of the colour blue in the 12th century was the veneration of the Virgin Mary , and a change in the colours used to depict her clothing.
In earlier centuries her robes had usually been painted in sombre black, grey, violet, dark green or dark blue. In the 12th century the Roma Catholic Church dictated that painters in Italy and the rest of Europe consequently to paint the Virgin Mary with the new most expensive pigment imported from Asia; ultramarine.
Ultramarine was made from lapis lazuli, from the mines of Badakshan , in the mountains of Afghanistan, near the source of the Oxus River. The mines were visited by Marco Polo in about ; he reported, "here is found a high mountain from which they extract the finest and most beautiful of blues.
Ultramarine refined out the impurities through a long and difficult process, creating a rich and deep blue. It was called bleu outremer in French and blu oltremare in Italian, since it came from the other side of the sea. It cost far more than any other colour, and it became the luxury colour for the Kings and Princes of Europe.
This was copied by other nobles. Paintings of the mythical King Arthur began to show him dressed in blue. The coat of arms of the kings of France became an azure or light blue shield, sprinkled with golden fleur-de-lis or lilies.
Blue had come from obscurity to become the royal colour. Once blue became the colour of the king, it also became the colour of the wealthy and powerful in Europe. In the Middle Ages in France and to some extent in Italy, the dyeing of blue cloth was subject to license from the crown or state.
In Italy, the dyeing of blue was assigned to a specific guild, the tintori di guado, and could not be done by anyone else without severe penalty. The wearing of blue implied some dignity and some wealth. Besides ultramarine, several other blues were widely used in the Middle Ages and later in the Renaissance. Azurite , a form of copper carbonate, was often used as a substitute for ultramarine. The Romans used it under the name lapis armenius, or Armenian stone. The British called it azure of Amayne, or German azure.
The Germans themselves called it bergblau, or mountain stone. It was mined in France, Hungary, Spain and Germany, and it made a pale blue with a hint of green, which was ideal for painting skies. It was a favourite background colour of the German painter Albrecht Dürer.
Another blue often used in the Middle Ages was called tournesol or folium. It was made from the plant Crozophora tinctoria , which grew in the south of France. It made a fine transparent blue valued in medieval manuscripts. Another common blue pigment was smalt , which was made by grinding blue cobalt glass into a fine powder.
It made a deep violet blue similar to ultramarine, and was vivid in frescoes, but it lost some of its brilliance in oil paintings. It became especially popular in the 17th century, when ultramarine was difficult to obtain. The Maesta by Duccio showed the Virgin Mary in a robe painted with ultramarine.
Blue became the colour of holiness, virtue and humility. In the Renaissance, a revolution occurred in painting; artists began to paint the world as it was actually seen, with perspective, depth, shadows, and light from a single source.
Artists had to adapt their use of blue to the new rules. In medieval paintings, blue was used to attract the attention of the viewer to the Virgin Mary, and identify her. In Renaissance paintings, artists tried to create harmonies between blue and red, lightening the blue with lead white paint and adding shadows and highlights. Raphael was a master of this technique, carefully balancing the reds and the blues so no one colour dominated the picture. Ultramarine was the most prestigious blue of the Renaissance, and patrons sometimes specified that it be used in paintings they commissioned.
The contract for the Madone des Harpies by Andrea del Sarto required that the robe of the Virgin Mary be coloured with ultramarine costing "at least five good florins an ounce. Often painters or clients saved money by using less expensive blues, such as azurite smalt, or pigments made with indigo, but this sometimes caused problems. Pigments made from azurite were less expensive, but tended to turn dark and green with time. The Virgin Mary's azurite blue robe has degraded into a greenish-black.
The introduction of oil painting changed the way colours looked and how they were used. Ultramarine pigment, for instance, was much darker when used in oil painting than when used in tempera painting, in frescoes. To balance their colours, Renaissance artists like Raphael added white to lighten the ultramarine. The sombre dark blue robe of the Virgin Mary became a brilliant sky blue.
He also used layers of finely ground or coarsely ground ultramarine, which gave subtle variations to the blue. Giotto was one of the first Italian Renaissance painters to use ultramarine , here in the murals of the Arena Chapel in Padua circa Throughout the 14th and 15th centuries, the robes of the Virgin Mary were painted with ultramarine.
Blue fills the picture. In the Madonna of the Meadow , Raphael used white to soften the ultramarine blue of Virgin Mary's robes to balance the red and blue, and to harmonise with the rest of the picture. Titian used an ultramarine sky and robes to give depth and brilliance to his Bacchus and Ariadne — It was painted with less-expensive azurite.
The Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry was the most important illuminated manuscript of the 15th century. The blue was the extravagantly expensive ultramarine. In about the 9th century, Chinese artisans abandoned the Han blue colour they had used for centuries, and began to use cobalt blue , made with cobalt salts of alumina , to manufacture fine blue and white porcelain , The plates and vases were shaped, dried, the paint applied with a brush, covered with a clear glaze, then fired at a high temperature.
Beginning in the 14th century, this type of porcelain was exported in large quantity to Europe where it inspired a whole style of art, called Chinoiserie. European courts tried for many years to imitate Chinese blue and white porcelain, but only succeeded in the 18th century after a missionary brought the secret back from China. Chinese blue and white porcelain from about , made in Jingdezhen, the porcelain centre of China.
Exported to Europe, this porcelain launched the style of Chinoiserie. A soft-paste porcelain vase made in Rouen , France, at the end of the 17th century, imitating Chinese blue and white.
Eighteenth century blue and white pottery from Delft , in the Netherlands. Russian porcelain of the cobalt net pattern, made with cobalt blue pigment. This pattern, first produced in , was copied after a design made for Catherine the Great. While blue was an expensive and prestigious colour in European painting, it became a common colour for clothing during the Renaissance. The rise of the colour blue in fashion in the 12th and 13th centuries led to a blue dye industry in several cities, notably Amiens , Toulouse , and Erfurt.
They made a dye called pastel from woad , a plant common in Europe, which had been used to make blue dye by the Celts and German tribes.
Blue became a colour worn by domestics and artisans, not just nobles. In , when Pope Pius V listed the colours that could be used for ecclesiastical dress and for altar decoration, he excluded blue, because he considered it too common. The process of making blue with woad was long and noxious — it involved soaking the leaves of the plant for from three days to a week in human urine, ideally urine from men who had been drinking a great deal of alcohol, which was said to improve the colour.
The fabric was then soaked for a day in the resulting mixture, then put out in the sun, where as it dried it turned blue. The pastel industry was threatened in the 15th century by the arrival from India of the same dye indigo , obtained from a shrub widely grown in Asia.
The Asian indigo dye precursors is more readily obtained. In , Vasco de Gama opened a trade route to import indigo from India to Europe. In India, the indigo leaves were soaked in water, fermented, pressed into cakes, dried into bricks, then carried to the ports London, Marseille, Genoa, and Bruges. The countries with large and prosperous pastel industries tried to block the use of indigo.
The German government outlawed the use of indigo in , describing it as a "pernicious, deceitful and corrosive substance, the Devil's dye. The efforts to block indigo were in vain; the quality of indigo blue was too high and the price too low for pastel made from woad to compete. In both the French and German governments finally allowed the use of indigo. This ruined the dye industries in Toulouse and the other cities that produced pastel, but created a thriving new indigo commerce to seaports such as Bordeaux, Nantes and Marseille.
Another war of the blues took place at the end of the 19th century, between indigo and synthetic indigo, discovered in by the German chemist Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer.
The German chemical firm BASF put the new dye on the market in , in direct competition with the British-run indigo industry in India, which produced most of the world's indigo.
In Britain sold ten thousand tons of natural indigo on the world market, while BASF sold six hundred tons of synthetic indigo. The British industry cut prices and reduced the salaries of its workers, but it was unable to compete; the synthetic indigo was more pure, made a more lasting blue, and was not dependent upon good or bad harvests.
In , India sold only tons of natural indigo, while BASF sold 22, tons of synthetic indigo. In , more than 38, tons of synthetic indigo was produced, often for the production of blue jeans. Isatis tinctoria , or woad, was the main source of blue dye in Europe from ancient times until the arrival of indigo from Asia and America.
It was processed into a paste called pastel. A woad mill in Thuringia , in Germany, in The woad industry was already on its way to extinction, unable to compete with indigo blue. A Dutch tapestry from to The blue colour comes from woad.
Indigofera tinctoria , a tropical shrub, is the main source of indigo dye. The chemical composition of indigo dye is the same as that of woad, but the colour is more intense. The leaf has been soaked in water, fermented, mixed with lye or another base, then pressed into cakes and dried, ready for export. In the 17th century, Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg , was one of the first rulers to give his army blue uniforms.
The reasons were economic; the German states were trying to protect their pastel dye industry against competition from imported indigo dye. When Brandenburg became the Kingdom of Prussia in , the uniform colour was adopted by the Prussian army. Most German soldiers wore dark blue uniforms until the First World War , with the exception of the Bavarians, who wore light blue.
Thanks in part to the availability of indigo dye, the 18th century saw the widespread use of blue military uniforms. Prior to , British naval officers simply wore upper-class civilian clothing and wigs. In , the British uniform for naval officers was officially established as an embroidered coat of the colour then called marine blue, now known as navy blue.
In the late 18th century, the blue uniform became a symbol of liberty and revolution. In October , even before the United States declared its independence, George Mason and one hundred Virginia neighbours of George Washington organised a voluntary militia unit the Fairfax County Independent Company of Volunteers and elected Washington the honorary commander.
For their uniforms they chose blue and buff , the colours of the Whig Party , the opposition party in England, whose policies were supported by George Washington and many other patriots in the American colonies. When the Continental Army was established in at the outbreak of the American Revolution , the first Continental Congress declared that the official uniform colour would be brown, but this was not popular with many militias, whose officers were already wearing blue.
In the Congress asked George Washington to design a new uniform, and in Washington made the official colour of all uniforms blue and buff. Blue continued to be the colour of the field uniform of the US Army until , and is still the colour of the dress uniform. In , the soldiers gradually changed their allegiance from the king to the people, and they played a leading role in the storming of the Bastille. After the fall of Bastille, a new armed force, the Garde Nationale , was formed under the command of the Marquis de Lafayette , who had served with George Washington in America.
Lafayette gave the Garde Nationale dark blue uniforms similar to those of the Continental Army. Blue became the colour of the revolutionary armies, opposed to the white uniforms of the Royalists and the Austrians. Napoleon Bonaparte abandoned many of the doctrines of the French Revolution but he kept blue as the uniform colour for his army, although he had great difficulty obtaining the blue dye, since the British controlled the seas and blocked the importation of indigo to France.
Napoleon was forced to dye uniforms with woad, which had an inferior blue colour. It was replaced with uniforms of a light blue-grey colour called horizon blue. Blue was the colour of liberty and revolution in the 18th century, but in the 19th it increasingly became the colour of government authority, the uniform colour of policemen and other public servants. It was considered serious and authoritative, without being menacing. In , when Robert Peel created the first London Metropolitan Police , he made the colour of the uniform jacket a dark, almost black blue, to make the policemen look different from soldiers, who until then had patrolled the streets.
The traditional blue jacket with silver buttons of the London "bobbie" was not abandoned until the mids, when it was replaced by a light blue shirt and a jumper or sweater of the colour officially known as NATO blue. The New York City Police Department , modelled after the London Metropolitan Police, was created in , and in , they were officially given a navy blue uniform, the colour they wear today.
Navy blue is one of the most popular school uniform colors, with the Toronto Catholic District School Board adopting a dress code policy which requires students system-wide to wear white tops and navy blue bottoms. Elector Frederic William of Brandenburg gave his soldiers blue uniforms engraving from When Brandenburg became the Kingdom of Prussia in , blue became the uniform colour of the Prussian Army.
Uniform of a lieutenant in the Royal Navy Marine blue became the official colour of the Royal Navy uniform coat in George Washington chose blue and buff as the colours of the Continental Army uniform. Research on the trade of jean fabric shows that it emerged in the cities of Genoa , Italy , and Nîmes , France. Gênes, the French word for Genoa , may be the origin of the word "jeans". In Nîmes, weavers tried to reproduce jean fabric but instead developed a similar twill fabric that became known as denim, from de Nîmes , meaning "from Nîmes".
Genoa's jean fabric was a fustian textile of "medium quality and of reasonable cost", very similar to cotton corduroy for which Genoa was famous, and was "used for work clothes in general". The Genoese navy equipped its sailors with jeans, as they needed a fabric which could be worn wet or dry. It was replaced by indigo synthesis methods developed in Germany. By the 17th century, jean was a crucial textile for working-class people in Northern Italy.
This is seen in a series of genre paintings from around the 17th century attributed to an artist now nicknamed The Master of the Blue Jeans. The fabric would have been Genoese jean, which was cheaper. Genre painting came to prominence in late 16th century, and the non-nobility subject matter in all ten paintings places them among others that portray similar scenes. Dungaree was mentioned for the first time in the 17th century, when it was referred to as cheap, coarse thick cotton cloth, often colored blue but sometimes white, worn by impoverished people in what was then a region of Bombay , India a dockside village called Dongri.
This cloth was "dungri" in Hindi. Dungri was exported to England and used for manufacturing of cheap, robust working clothes. In English, the word "dungri" became pronounced as "dungaree". The term jeans appears first in , when a Swiss banker by the name Jean-Gabriel Eynard and his brother Jacques went to Genoa and both were soon heading a flourishing commercial concern. In Massena 's troops entered the town and Jean-Gabriel was entrusted with their supply.
In particular he furnished them with uniforms cut from blue cloth called "bleu de Genes" whence later derives the famous garment known worldwide as "blue jeans". Levi Strauss , as a young man in , went from Germany to New York to join his older brothers who ran a goods store. In , he moved to San Francisco to open his own dry goods business.
In , Davis wrote to Strauss asking to partner with him to patent and sell clothing reinforced with rivets. Levi accepted Davis's offer,  and the two men received US patent No. Davis and Strauss experimented with different fabrics.
An early attempt was brown cotton duck , a bottom-weight fabric. The denim used was produced by an American manufacturer. Popular legend incorrectly states that it was imported from Nimes, France. A popular myth is that Strauss initially sold brown canvas pants to miners, later dyed them blue, turned to using denim, and only after Davis wrote to him, added rivets. Initially, Strauss' jeans were simply sturdy trousers worn by factory workers , miners, farmers, and cattlemen throughout the North American West.
Later, the jeans were redesigned to today's industry standard of five pockets including a little watch pocket and copper rivets. Fewer jeans were made during World War II , but 'waist overalls' were introduced to the world by US soldiers, who sometimes wore them off duty.
Historic photographs indicate that in the decades before they became a staple of fashion, jeans generally fit quite loosely, much like a pair of bib overalls without the bib. Indeed, until , Levi Strauss called its flagship product "waist overalls" rather than "jeans". After James Dean popularized them in the movie Rebel Without a Cause , wearing jeans became a symbol of youth rebellion during the s.
Examples of intentional denim distressing strictly to make them more fashionable can be seen as early as in Vogue's June issue. Acceptance of jeans continued through the s and s. Originally an esoteric fashion choice, in the s jeans may be seen being worn by men and women of all ages.
Traditionally, jeans were dyed to a blue color using natural indigo dye. Most denim is now dyed using synthetic indigo. Currently, jeans are produced in any color that can be achieved with cotton. For more information on dyeing, refer to denim and the discussion there of using pigment dyes. In Levi Strauss introduced pre-shrunk jeans, which did not shrink further after purchase, allowing the consumer to purchase a correctly fitting size.
The are almost identical to the s with the exception of the button-fly. The Levi's Corporation also introduced a slim boot-cut fit known as and The difference between the two is the s sit at the waist line and the s sit below the waist line. Later, Levi's would develop other styles and fits such as the loose, slim, comfort, relaxed, skinny, and a regular fit with a tapered leg.
Ripping or distressing of jeans, though also arising naturally as a result of wear and tear, is sometimes deliberately performed by suppliers - with distressed clothing sometimes selling for more than a nondistressed pair.
Consumers wanting jeans that appear worn can buy jeans that have been specially treated. To give the fabrics the worn look, sandblasting done with chemicals or by adding pumice stone to the washing process or abrading with sandpaper is often done.
A typical pair of blue jeans uses gallons liters of water during its life cycle. This includes the water to irrigate the cotton crop, manufacture the jeans, and the numerous washes by the consumer. The production of jeans with a "used look" can be more environmentally damaging than regular jeans  [ citation needed ] , depending on how the waste compounds are processed.
Sandblasting and treating with sandpaper has the risk of causing silicosis to the workers, and in Turkey , more than 5, textile workers have been stricken with this disease, and 46 people are known to have died. Customer reviews frequently mention war rinaldi civil historical sarah ann army spy father union runs young fiction romance woman marry abusive joins women fight. There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Mass Market Paperback Verified Purchase.
I saw this book at the Lincoln homestead national park in Springfield, IL. It's a young adult novel, the story of a teenager who decides she is not going to be married off to a creepy neighboring farmer, and so runs away to join the Union Army in the Civil War. The historical perspective is good - here is a self-reliant young woman, who is able to provide for her family, for instance - although I wish there had been more details about the world around her, such as clothing details, etc.
The story is solid and I enjoyed the read. Really good for incoming 7th and 8th graders! I was in need of this book for my daughters reading project. I found a copy online and was very happy when I received the book in great condition and in a timely manner. Thank you for the book. The book arrived on schedule. Her older sister Clarice is married.
She has learned to hunt and ride better than any boy. Their abusive father, who beats both Sarah and her mother, plans to wed Sarah to their odious neighbor, Ezekiel Kunkle, who is a widower with two children. So she runs away, dresses as a boy named Neddie Compton, and joins the Union Army. However, obviously being good at disguising herself and acting a part, she is recruited by Allan Pinkerton to serve as a maid in the home of the notorious Southern spy Rose Greenhow to help with surveillance and see if she can find out how Rose is sending messages.
She begins to fall in love with Lt. Sheldon, head of the surveillance team, but then has reason to believe that he might be a traitor. Will her position be compromised so that she is found out again? And what should she do about Sheldon? How weird is this! I obtain different books from different sources at different times and in different places and then put them in different piles to be read on different occasions. So the books that I am reading at any particular point are the result of happenstance.
Back in , I picked up some young people's Civil War fiction books while visiting in Gettysburg, one of which, No Girls Allowed by Alan Kay, is a completely fictional account of a girl who dresses as a boy to fight in the Union Army.
I just recently started reading it, but before I finished it, I began another book entitled A Soldier's Secret by Marissa Moss which had been sent to me early in by the publisher for review and is a fictionalized account of the life of Sarah Edmonds who dressed as a boy to fight in the Union Army.
Girl in Blue is well written and easy to read. It has fewer objectionable elements than Moss's book, omitting the euphemistic sexual references to male anatomy. However, while it is listed for ages eight and above, the "d" and "h" words are both used occasionally, the terms "God" and "Lord" are sometimes found as interjections, there are several instances of drinking beer, whiskey, and wine, and a few of the fighting scenes are a little intense with some gory detail.
Therefore, I would recommend it for ages twelve and above. Rinaldi writes concerning the real Sarah Edmonds, "Her tenure in the army was longer than my Sarah's, and she never served with the Pinkerton detective agency," and said, "I have invented all the rest of the characters, with the exception of Abraham Lincoln, General McClellan, Doctor Hammond, Allan Pinkerton and his operatives, and Rose Greenhow and the women spies incarcerated with her at Fort Greenhow.
Amelia's War is another Civil War historical by Rinaldi. Sixteen year old Sarah has lived at the mercies of an abusive and overbearing father her entire life, but she refuses to be handed off like property to a neighbor twice her age just so that he can help out on the farm and she can raise his three motherless children. She's determined to get away, and to serve her country as she knows she has the skill to do-as a soldier.
Sarah is an accomplished marksman, she's brave, and she has no interest or intentions towards men other than serving beside them.
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